According to some estimates, there are about 2500 programming languages in the world today, of which only 100 are still used. In this chapter, I will mention only 10 programming languages considered some of the most popular and recommended for study.

Programming means writing and reading code. It's a simple definition. It turns out that all you have to do is learn a programming language and put it into practice. What is the essence of a programming language? Is there anything you need to know before taking a course? Sometimes study programs are too time-consuming or too short, contain too much or too little information. There are certain topics you have to learn by heart, understand, and apply in practice.

Below I present a list of the most popular programming languages, which you can consider as a recommendation:

1. Python

Python is a high-level programming language, widely used and in high demand for studies. It is considered an easy-to-learn programming language due to its similar syntax to English. It can be used in various directions, from data analysis and visualization to web programming, prototyping, and automation.

Python is popular because it also works well as a scripting language. More than that, it allows programmers to use it with different paradigms, such as object-oriented programming, procedural, functional, and imperative programming (I'll explain later in more detail what each paradigm means).

In addition, this language is open-source, allowing programmers to modify the source code for their own needs.

Python programmers are in increasing demand. This language fits into different job descriptions such as Data Scientist, Software Engineer, or Artificial Intelligence Researcher. It can also be considered as an excellent starting point for programming.

2. C#

C# is an object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft in the early 90s. Like the Java language, it is a derivative of C++, being easier to learn than its predecessors C and C++ languages.

Due to its performance and stability characteristics, it has been in the top 10 most popular and used programming languages for a long time. The C# language is a component of the .NET platform (which includes more than 80 programming languages) intended primarily for developing Windows applications. However, with the appearance of the .NET Core platform, it has also become compatible with the Linux operating system. Considered one of the best desktop programming languages.

A wide variety of applications are developed based on C#, not only desktop but also for web, mobile, games, APIs, and much more. Programmers are always in demand on the labor market.

3. JavaScript

JavaScript language, considered by some to be the most popular programming language, being the most used, is indispensable for front-end programming, as 98% of websites use JavaScript on the client side to achieve interface functionality.

JavaScript is primarily used to make websites interactive, generating effects like interactive buttons and pop-ups, dynamic graphic elements, navigation, etc. Many libraries are developed based on this language, such as ReactJS, jQuery, Angular, etc. Specifically used for graphic interfaces.

It is actually a very interesting and easy-to-learn language for anyone who wants to pursue a career in web programming especially the front-end part.

4. C++

It's a programming language derived from C, considered a more refined version. From it, derived languages such as Java and C#. It is an object-oriented programming language that can be adapted to other genres of programming such as imperative programming.

Due to its increased performance and versatility, it can be widely used in the IT industry to develop games, desktop applications, browsers, and operating systems. However, due to its complex syntax, it is considered a difficult programming language to learn.

It combines some features specific to low-level operations, as well as some high-level ones. It is a structured, multi-platform language, still in demand on the market. Programmers specializing in C++ are well-paid and sought after by many companies.

5. PHP

PHP is one of the first backend languages web developers consider essential to study. It is also worth noting that about 78.1% of all websites use PHP because it is the basic language for WordPress - the most popular and used CMS for creating websites.

Compared to other programming languages, PHP is considered easy to learn, having a simple syntax, plus the fact that there are many free teaching resources for this language.

Also, this programming language offers several excellent frameworks for developing web pages and applications, some of the best are Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter.

PHP can also be used for command-line scripting, server-side scripting, and desktop application development.

In terms of job opportunities, PHP is a highly sought-after open-source programming language, despite being one of the oldest in the IT industry.

6. Java

Java is a programming language developed and owned by Oracle. Also known for the syntagm "write once, use anywhere". It is an object-oriented programming language that runs on any operating system.

It is considered an easy language to learn and use due to its relatively simple syntax. Furthermore, it is convenient to parallelize it or to transit from it to other similar programming languages, for example, C#. Many recommend Java as a language suitable for beginners.

Java language can be used for web programming, desktop, and API development, and for such areas as Big Data, Data Science, or Fintech.

Some of the most popular Java frameworks used for application development are Hibernate, Spring, Spring MVC.

7. SQL

SQL, from Structured Query Language, is a query language for databases. The best programming language if you are interested in fields such as Data Science or Statistical Computing. It is a data-specific language that allows programmers to query, manipulate, and analyze data stored in a relational database.

In terms of job opportunities, companies in all industries may need SQL developers as they play a vital role in database management.

Most web, mobile, and desktop applications use SQL databases, in conjunction with certain Database Management Systems such as MySQL, MSSQL, Oracle, MariaDB.

Therefore, it is fair to say that SQL developers are in high demand. Mastering the SQL language is absolutely nothing difficult. In fact, it would be mandatory for everyone who wants to become a programmer, regardless of the direction of specialization.

8. Go

Go, or Golang was created for developing APIs, GUI-based desktop applications, and web applications. Although it is a young language, it is one of the fastest-growing programming languages.

Concurrent programming is one of the best features of Go. It allows programmers to work with multicore CPUs and a massive code base. Go is the go-to language for creating algorithms, web servers, and data streams.

Despite its complexity and orientation towards concurrent programming, Go has become one of the most popular programming languages for students. Although it is based on C syntax, it is easier to understand because of its simplicity.

Some of the most popular job listings for Go programmers include Software Engineers, Data Scientists, Web Developers, and AI (Artificial Intelligence) Researchers. Also, Go programmers are very well paid and in high demand today like never before.

9. Ruby

Ruby is another well-known open-source programming language. It is commonly used for web application development, but programmers can also use it for data analysis and prototyping.

Because Ruby uses an English-like syntax, learning this language requires less effort.

In addition, the Ruby on Rails (RoR) framework brings many benefits, including improved security for web applications, requires low maintenance, and is suitable for full-stack programming. Although many may think Ruby is stagnant, this language has become one of the most stable options for web programming. Therefore, if you want to improve your web programming skills, learning Ruby is an excellent way to go.

10. Dart

Dart is a programming language designed by Google. Mainly used for developing mobile applications in combination with the Flutter framework, but also used for web applications, server applications, and desktop applications.

It is an Object Oriented language with a syntax similar to C. Approved as a standard by ECMA (ECMA-408), it is used to build almost anything on the web, servers, desktops, and of course mobile applications.

If you are interested in developing mobile applications, especially those supported by iOS and Android platforms, then Dart and Flutter are for you.


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